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3?????????AIP?423?3??????????????1948?3?8???????????????4???????????????????????????????????1948??5??????????????PES?6?????????????????????????????????????????????1980??268???????????????Ithaca???????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

79????????????162?80??????????Bebe??1986?80??????????F-W?176?81IT?????????i-32?8?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

272-73?437???1948A378????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????NL?10??Schwinger?????????????????????????????????????????WPA???,???????,?????????store-boughten?????????????????,????????????????????????,??????????????????????????????????,??

40???????F-W?78?41???1982????1932??13?41????????????A?????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????????

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367?????????????170????????1948?10??368????????????????1990?368???????????1990?210?368?????????CPL?168????????????????????????????????????????????

195????????Waksman1964?127?28?196????????????115?18?196?????????????1983?163?64?196?????????L?????????????????????GellMann????????????????????????????346MURRAYGELL-MANN????????Gell-Mann1989a?50?346??????????????????

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212????????F-W?423???154?212???????????????Olum???????????????????????????????????63????????????????????64??????????????SYJ?18?64??????????????????

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139?????????139???????????139???????????1985?169?140????????????????1987?340?140?????????Lavatelli????1983?163?64?196?????????L???1980?99?????1974??166?67????1979?159?60?

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288?148???????????1937??342?149?????????????1952??122?150??????????????????????????????????N.D?PES?150???????????????????1942?6?15??PES?419??????????????21?419THIOKOL???????97?419???????????